Virginia Apgar was born in Westfield, New Jersey in 1909. She attended New York’s Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons, graduating in 1933 and interning in surgery. Her residencies in anesthesiology were with Dr. Ralph Waters (the founder of the first academic department of anesthesiology in the world) at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, and with Dr. Emery Rovenstine at Bellevue Hospital in New York. In 1938, she became Director of the Division of Anesthesia at Columbia. She later went into obstetric anesthesia, developing the APGAR Score in 1949, which measures the viability of a newborn infant. Published in 1953, the APGAR Score has been improving the health of newborns worldwide for more than half a century. She later became Director of the National Foundation (now known as the March of Dimes), where research has aided in the prevention of birth defects. Virginia Apgar died in 1974 and was honored twenty years later when the U.S. Postal Service issued a stamp bearing her likeness.