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Catalog Record: Julliard's Mask  



Access Key: akdn
Accession No.: 1991-11-11-1 B

Title: [Julliard's mask / designed by Gustave Julliard.]
Author: Julliard, Gustave, 1836-1911.

Title variation: Alt Title
Title: Julliard mask.

Title variation: Alt Title
Title: Julliard'sche Maske.

Title variation: Alt Title
Title: Masque de Julliard.

Title variation: Alt Title
Title: Ether rausch.

Publisher: [S.l. : s.n., 1878-1940.]
Physical Descript: 1 face mask : metal ; 28 x 17 x 13 cm.

Subject: Anesthesia, Inhalation - instrumentation.
Subject: Ether, Ethyl.
Subject: Masks, Anesthesia - wire frame.

Note Type: General
Notes: There are no markings on the item, and no accompanying container. A formal
name given by the author was not found. In the English literature
"Julliard's Mask" was found only a little more often than "Julliard Mask".
Because the designer was a Swiss surgeon who published in both French and
German, terms used for the mask in French and German were included as
alternate titles. In Dr. Gwathmey's 1914 textbook he refers to the mask as
"The Ether Rausch". This is also included as an alternate title.

Note Type: With
Notes: With a large piece of cotton gauze.

Note Type: Citation
Notes: Borel-Beroide, Andre´. Anesthe´sie par l'Éther: Le Masque de Julliard. Paris:
[Medical Thesis]; 1895.

Note Type: General
Notes: Gwathmey JT. Anesthesia. New York: D. Appleton & Co.; 1914:209-211.

Note Type: Citation
Notes: Julliard G. L'éther est-il préférable au chloroforme? Rev Med Suisse Romande.
February 20, 1891;11(2):81-128.

Note Type: Citation
Notes: Müller B. Narkologie. I Band. Berlin: R. Trenkel; 1905:187-188.

Note Type: Physical Description
Notes: All metal, wire-frame mask that, when applied to a patient's face, covers
most or all of the face, from chin to forehead; The thin wire rim that is
closest to the patient's face is ovoid in shape, with the exception of the
most inferior potion (where the rim has contact with the chin), which is more
straight than curved; Four thin wire bars curve dramatically away from the
face to hold ether soaked gauze or flannel a good distance off of the face;
Two of these bars run horizontally and two run vertically; From the most
superior and inferior points on the rim, two 14 cm long and 1 cm wide metal
supports run vertically between the two vertical bars; On the most superior
part of the rim is a 9 cm long handle; There is also a single, unattached
wire with the same (or very similar) shape and dimensions of the rim of the
mask; This unattached, ovoid wire acts as a collar to hold the ether soaked
gauze or flannel in place.

Note Type: Reproduction
Notes: Photographed by Mr. Steve Donisch on January 16, 2013.

Note Type: Acquisition
Notes: Donated to the WLM by Arthur S. Keats, MD, in 1991.

Note Type: Historical
Notes: Dr. Gustave Julliard was a well-known surgeon from Geneva, Switzerland, and
is recognized as having greatly influenced the movement away from chloroform
and toward the use of ether on the European Continent. In 1891, Julliard
reported on studies into the safety of chloroform and ether, concluding that,
while both posed risks, ether was considerably safer. In the paper titled,
“L'éther est-il préférable au chloroforme?” Julliard also describes his
method for ether anesthesia and provides an image of his mask covered with an
impermeable material. He suggests that other masks may be used for ether
anesthesia with two stipulations: 1) that they are covered on the outside
with a waterproof fabric to prevent outward evaporation of the ether, and 2)
that they are large enough to prevent suffocation of the patient. He states
that his mask was 15 cm long, 12 cm wide and 15 cm in depth. The face portion
of the mask described in this record measures approx. 19 cm long, 17 cm wide,
and 13 cm in depth.

Note Type: Historical
Notes: To administer anesthesia, an absorbent material, such as gauze or flannel,
saturated with ether was applied over the mask, secured in place by the wire
collar, covered with the waterproof material and then very slowly lowered
onto the patient’s face. The handle for the mask was held by the anesthetist
just above the patients forehead. During the surgery the mask was
periodically lifted to allow the patient to breath room air.

Note Type: Exhibition
Notes: Selected for the WLM website (noted November, 2012). Displayed in the Wood
Library-Museum Gallery, in the ASA Headquarters building on Northwest Highway
from 1999-2010.



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