John Snow (1813-1858) was an English physician who is recognized for pioneering work in anesthesiology as well as epidemiology. He was the first physician to specialize in anesthesia, and his studies of both ether and chloroform are considered classics today. He is credited with advancing the use of anesthesia for labor pain when many professionals and laymen strongly opposed it. In fact, he administered chloroform to Queen Victoria for the births of two of her children, Prince Leopold and Princess Beatrice. The Queen pronounced the effects "delightful", and her approval made obstetrical anesthesia suddenly fashionable.