Ethyl Chloride

WLMD ID: aive, aivf, aivh
Clockwise from the top is a box for a Kélène (ethyl chloride) dispenser, a glass dispenser for ethyl chloride manufactured by Duncan, Flockhart & Co., a dispenser for ethyl chloride manufactured by Bengué & Co., and the Kélène (ethy chloride) dispenser that goes with the previously mentioned box. Ethyl chloride was first described in 1759 by Guillaume-Francois Rouelle (1703–1770), a French chemist. It was first used as a general anesthetic in 1847, by Johann Ferdinand Heyfelder (1798-1869), a German surgeon. Heyfelder was impressed by its fast onset and short duration of action, but it was too expensive and difficult to obtain for regular use. Once ethyl chloride became readily available, it was again taken up for anesthesia, first as a topical, "refrigeration" anesthetic in the early 1890s, then as a general anesthetic in the late 1890s. Ethyl chloride evaporates very quickly so that when it is sprayed onto the skin it produces very cold temperatures. “Refrigeration anesthesia”, or cryoanesthesia, refers to the anesthesia produced when the skin is significantly cooled. Due to its rapid onset, ethyl chloride was often used to induce general anesthesia. It would be followed by a second anesthetic, such as ether or nitrous oxide, which would be used for the remainder of the procedure. "Kélène" was a popular brand of ethyl chloride. It was so popular in Europe, Kélène became synonymous with ethyl chloride.

Catalog Record: Ethyl Chloride

 

Three Catalog Records (aive, aivf, aivh):

Access Key: aive
Accession No.: 2001-08-13-1 A

Title: Kelene : chloride d’ethyle “pur” / Société Chimiques des Usines du Rhône ; Gilliard, P. Monnet & Cartier.

Corporate Author: Gilliard, P. Monnet & Cartier.
Corporate Author: Société Chimiques des Usines du Rhône.

Title variation: Alt Title
Title: Kélène : chloride d’ethyle “pur”.

Title variation: Alt Title
Title: Gilliard, Monnet & Cartier kelene dispenser and box.

Title variation: Alt Title
Title: Ethyl chloride.

Publisher: La Plaine (Suisse) : Société Chimiques des Usines du Rhône ; [Lyons,] France : Gilliard, P. Monnet & Cartier, [1895-1920].

Physical Description: 1 ethyl chloride dispenser : metal, glass ; 52.5 x 1.5 dia. cm. + box

Subject: Ethyl Chloride.
Subject: Drug Packaging.
Subject: Anesthetics, Inhalation.
Subject: Cryoanesthesia.
Subject: Administration, Cutaneous.

Note Type: General
Notes: Title from markings on the dispenser’s label.

Note Type: General
Notes: The dispenser has been emptied of any liquid.

Note Type: Citation
Notes: Barton GAH. A Guide to the Administration of Ethyl Chloride. London: H.K.
Lewis, 1907:7-13.

Note Type: Citation
Notes: Duncum BM. The Development of Inhalation Anaesthesia. London: Royal Society
of Medicine Press, Ltd, 1947, 1994:498-516

Note Type: Citation
Notes: Hintzenstern U, Schwarz W. [Early contributions from Erlangen to the theory
and practice of ether and chloroform anesthesia. 1. Heyfelder’s clinical
trial with ether and chloroform]. Anaesthesist. 1996;45(2):131-139.

Note Type: Citation
Notes: Westhorpe R. Ethyle chloride. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1994;22(1):3.

Note Type: Physical Description
Notes: An ethyl chloride dispenser composed of a glass tube with a metal cap; Four
manufacturer labels are on the glass tube; Markings include, “KELENE [new
line] CHLORURE D’ETHYLE “PUR” [new line] SOCIETE CHIMIQUES DES USINES DU
RHONE [new line] LA PLAINE (Suisse) [new line] ANCT. GILLIARD, P. MONNET &
CARTIER”; A small label below the main label is marked with the number 17;
The third label is marked with, “Breveté en France et à l’Etranger”; The
fourth label is torn with a portion missing; Markings still visible on the
fouth label include, “AN” [tear] SIE LOCAL”; The dispenser is accompanied by
a cardboard box that is also labeled; Markings on the box include, “KELENE
[new line] (… = Je calme) [new line] SOCIETE CHIMIQUES DES USINES DU RHONE
[new line] ANCIENNEMENT [new line] GILLIARD, P. MONNET & CARTIER [NEW LINE]
MANUFACTURE DE PRODUITS CHIMIQUES LA PLAINE PRES GENEVE [new line] CHLORUR
D’ETHYL “PUR”; A second smaller label on the box is marked with. “BREVETE S.G
D.G.”; The box is a maroon color and measures approx. 5 x 16.5 x 3 cm.

Note Type: Reproduction
Notes: Photographed by Mr. William Lyle, July 28, 2010; This dispenser and its
accompanying box were photographed with two other ethyl chloride dispensers;
In the photo, clockwise from top the Kélène box is the first item and the
Kélène dispenser is the fourth.

Note Type: Acquisition
Notes: Donated to the WLM by George S. Bause, M.D.

Note Type: Historical
Notes: “Kélène” was a popular brand of ethyl chloride; So popular, in its name
became synonymous with ethyl chloride in Europe. Although ethyl chloride was
first described in 1759 by Guillaume-Francois Rouelle (1703–1770), a French
chemist, it was not used as a general anesthetic until 1847, by Johann
Ferdinand Heyfelder (1798-1869) (Westhorpe, 1994). Heyfelder was impressed by
its fast onset and short duration of action, but concluded that it was too
expensive and difficult to obtain for regular use (Hintzenstern & Schwarz,
1996). Once the manufacture of ethyl chloride progressed so that it was
readily available, it was again taken up for anesthesia, first as a topical,
“refrigeration” anesthetic in the early 1890s, then as a general anesthetic
in the late 1890s (Barton, 1907 ; Duncum, 1947). (“Refrigeration anesthesia”,
or cryoanesthesia, refers to the anesthesia produced when the skin is cooled.
Ethyl chloride evaporates very quickly so when it is sprayed onto the skin it
produces very cold temperatures.) Due to its rapid onset, ethyl chloride was
often used to induce general anesthesia. It would be followed by a second
anesthetic, such as ether or nitrous oxide, which would be used for the
remainder of the procedure.

Note Type: Historical
Notes: Because it can cause liver damage and because there is a very fine difference
between an effective dose and an overdose, ethyl chloride is no longer used
as a general anesthetic. It is still used topically to numb areas before
injections, to assess regional anesthesia, and to relieve local pain in
sports medicine.

Access Key: aivf
Accession No.: 2007-07-01-1

Title: Chloryl anaesthetic Duncan : ethyl chloride / manufactured by Duncan, Flockhart & Co.

Corporate Author: Duncan, Flockhart & Co.

Title variation: Alt Title
Title: Chloryl anaesthetic, Duncan : ethyl chloride, B.P.

Title variation: Alt Title
Title: Duncan’s ethyl chloride.

Publisher: Edinburgh : Duncan, Flockhart & Co., 1951.

Physical Description: 1 ethyl chloride dispenser : glass, metal ; 16.5 x 3 dia. cm. + box

Subject: Ethyl Chloride.
Subject: Drug Packaging.
Subject: Anesthetics, Inhalation.
Subject: Cryoanesthesia.
Subject: Administration, Cutaneous.

Note Type: General
Notes: Title from manufacturer’s label on the dispenser.

Note Type: General
Notes: The dispenser has been emptied of any liquid.

Note Type: Citation
Notes: Barton GAH. A Guide to the Administration of Ethyl Chloride. London: H.K.
Lewis, 1907:7-13.

Note Type: Citation
Notes: Duncum BM. The Development of Inhalation Anaesthesia. London: Royal Society
of Medicine Press, Ltd, 1947, 1994:498-516

Note Type: Citation
Notes: Hintzenstern U, Schwarz W. [Early contributions from Erlangen to the theory
and practice of ether and chloroform anesthesia. 1. Heyfelder’s clinical
trial with ether and chloroform]. Anaesthesist. 1996;45(2):131-139.

Note Type: Citation
Notes: Westhorpe R. Ethyle chloride. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1994;22(1):3.

Note Type: Physical Description
Notes: An ethyl chloride dispenser composed of a glass tube with a levered cap; Two
manufacturer labels are on the dispenser; There are graduation marks on both
sides of the label in cubic centimeters (cc); Each mark indicates 1 cc with
numbers at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 cc; The text on the label includes,
“CHLORYL ANAESTHETIC. DUNCAN. [new line] Ethyl Chloride. B.P. Batch No. 511
[“511” is stamped rather than printed like most of the text, new line]
Manufactured by [new line] DUNCAN, FLOCKHART & CO., LTD. [new line] Edinburgh
and London. FEB 1951 [“FEB 1951″ is stamped rather than printed, new line] IN
COLD WEATHER it is advisable to warm the tube in the hand, as otherwise the
delivery of Chloryl may be slow, or cease altogether.”; Also on the large
label, printed perpendicular to the other text is, “For [new line] LOCAL
USE”; The smaller label is marked with, “PACKAGE CHARGED [new line, diamond
shape with the following text inside:] 1/- [new line] CREDITED ON RETURN [new
line] TO [new line] DUNCAN, FLOCKHART & CO. LTD. [new line] EDINBURGH &
LONDON [new line] REGISTERED OFFICE [new line] 104 HOLYROOD ROAD [new line]
EDINBURGH, 9”; The dispenser is accompanied by a box that is also labeled;
Markings of the box’s label include, “CHLORYL ANAESTHETIC. DUNCAN. [new line]
60 c.c. Ethyl Chloride. B.P. Batch No. [new line] Manufactured by [new line]
DUNCAN, FLOCKHART & CO., LTD. [new line] Edinburgh and London”, with “For
[new line] LOCAL USE” printed perpendicular to the main text; The box is a
dark ‘eggplant’ color and measures 5 x 18 x 4 cm.

Note Type: Reproduction
Notes: Photographed by Mr. William Lyle, July 28, 2010; This dispenser was
photographed with two other ethyl chloride dispensers and a box that
accompanies one of the other dispensers; In the photo, clockwise from top
this dispenser is the second item.

Note Type: Historical
Notes: Although ethyl chloride was first described in 1759 by Guillaume-Francois
Rouelle (1703–1770), a French chemist, it was not used as a general
anesthetic until 1847, by Johann Ferdinand Heyfelder (1798-1869) (Westhorpe,
1994). Heyfelder was impressed by its fast onset and short duration of action
but concluded that it was too expensive and difficult to obtain for regular
use (Hintzenstern & Schwarz, 1996). Once the manufacture of ethyl chloride
progressed so that it was readily available, it was again taken up for
anesthesia, first as a topical, “refrigeration” anesthetic in the early 1890s
then as a general anesthetic in the late 1890s (Barton, 1907 ; Duncum, 1947)
(“Refrigeration anesthesia”, or cryoanesthesia, refers to the anesthesia
produced when the skin is cooled. Ethyl chloride evaporates very quickly so
when it is sprayed onto the skin it produces very cold temperatures.) Due to
its rapid onset, ethyl chloride was often used to induce general anesthesia.
It would be followed by a second anesthetic, such as ether or nitrous oxide,
which would be used for the remainder of the procedure.

Note Type: Historical
Notes: Because it can cause liver damage and because there is a very fine difference
between an effective dose and an overdose, ethyl chloride is no longer used
as a general anesthetic. It is still used topically to numb areas before
injections, to assess regional anesthesia, and to relieve local pain in
sports medicine.

Access Key: aivh
Accession No.: 2011-01-31-1
Title: Bengue’s ethyl chloride for local anaesthesia : for dental and minor surgical
operations / Bengue & Co.

Corporate Author: Bengue & Co., Ltd.

Title variation: Alt Title
Title: Bengue ethyl chloride dispenser.

Publisher: Mount Pleasant, Alperton, Wembley [U.K.] : Bengue & Co., [1895-1950].

Physical Description: 1 ethyl chloride dispenser : glass, metal, ; 15.5 x 3 dia. cm. + box

Subject: Ethyl Chloride.
Subject: Drug Packaging.
Subject: Anesthetics, Inhalation.
Subject: Cryoanesthesia.
Subject: Administration, Cutaneous.

Note Type: Not Applicable
Notes: Title from manufacturer’s label in the dispenser.

Note Type: General
Notes: The dispenser has been emptied of any liquid.

Note Type: Citation
Notes: Barton GAH. A Guide to the Administration of Ethyl Chloride. London: H.K.
Lewis, 1907:7-13.

Note Type: Citation
Notes: Duncum BM. The Development of Inhalation Anaesthesia. London: Royal Society
of Medicine Press, Ltd, 1947, 1994:498-516

Note Type: Citation
Notes: Hintzenstern U, Schwarz W. [Early contributions from Erlangen to the theory
and practice of ether and chloroform anesthesia. 1. Heyfelder’s clinical
trial with ether and chloroform]. Anaesthesist. 1996;45(2):131-139.

Note Type: Citation
Notes: Westhorpe R. Ethyle chloride. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1994;22(1):3.

Note Type: Physical Description
Notes: An ethyl chloride dispenser composed of a glass tube with a levered cap;
There is one manufacturer label on the dispenser; Markings on the label, from
top to bottom, include, “BENGUE’S [the number 98 is stamped, to the right of
“BENGUE’S”, rather than printed like the other text, new line] ETHYL CHLORIDE
[new line] FOR [new line] LOCAL ANAESTHESIA [new line] for Dental and Minor
Surgical Operations [new line] IMPORTANT This tube which cost 4/9 can be
REFILLED for 3/- only. Send it to your usual supplier for refill [new line]
BENGUE & Co. Ltd. Mfg. Chemists, [new line] Mount Pleasant, Alperton,
Wembley”; The dispenser is accompanied by a cardboard box that is also
labeled; Markings on the right side of the box’s label include, “Dr. BENGUÉ’S
[new line] TRADE MARK [the Bengue logo] TRADE MARK”; Markings on the right
side of the label include, “LOCAL ANAESTEHSIA [new line, an image of an ethyl
chloride dispenser marked with] 30 Grammes [new line] BENGUE & CO. LTD., Mfg.
Chemists, Mount Pleasant, Alperton, Wembley, Mdx. [new line] DO NOT DESTROY
THIS TUBE, IT CAN BE REFILLED”; A little further to the right on the label is
“MADE [new line] IN ENGLAND”; The box is maroon in color and measures approx
5 x 16.5 x 3.5 cm.

Note Type: Reproduction
Notes: Photographed by Mr. William Lyle, July 28, 2010; This dispenser was
photographed with two other ethyl chloride dispensers and a box that
accompanies one of the other dispensers; In the photo, clockwise from top
this dispenser is the third item.

Note Type: Historical
Notes: Although ethyl chloride was first described in 1759 by Guillaume-Francois
Rouelle (1703–1770), a French chemist, it was not used as a general
anesthetic until 1847, by Johann Ferdinand Heyfelder (1798-1869) (Westhorpe,
1994). Heyfelder was impressed by its fast onset and short duration of action
but concluded that it was too expensive and difficult to obtain for regular
use (Hintzenstern & Schwarz, 1996). Once the manufacture of ethyl chloride
progressed so that it was readily available, it was again taken up for
anesthesia, first as a topical, “refrigeration” anesthetic in the early 1890s
then as a general anesthetic in the late 1890s (Barton, 1907 ; Duncum, 1947)
(“Refrigeration anesthesia”, or cryoanesthesia, refers to the anesthesia
produced when the skin is cooled. Ethyl chloride evaporates very quickly so
when it is sprayed onto the skin it produces very cold temperatures.) Due to
its rapid onset, ethyl chloride was often used to induce general anesthesia.
It would be followed by a second anesthetic, such as ether or nitrous oxide,
which would be used for the remainder of the procedure.

Note Type: Historical
Notes: Because it can cause liver damage and because there is a very fine difference
between an effective dose and an overdose, ethyl chloride is no longer used
as a general anesthetic. It is still used topically to numb areas before
injections, to assess regional anesthesia, and to relieve local pain in
sports medicine.