Hayes Inhaler

WLMD ID: aiwo, aiwp, aiwn
Rev. Dr. Samuel J. Hayes (1833-1897) worked as a schoolteacher, minister, editor, dentist and manufacturer. He also published the Dental and Surgical Microcosm from 1891 to 1897. This was the world's first journal to focus on anesthesia. Hayes used his proprietary journal to denounce the prevalent misuse of nitrous oxide anesthesia, which could suffocate the patient unless air or oxygen was added. The first model of his apparatus, patented in 1881, is made of tin. The second was patented in 1892; it is made of brass and has an elegant oval shape. The final model was patented in 1895; this too is made of brass, and has a cylindrical shape. Each model incorporated innovative safety features. The apparatus had a chamber to hold liquid ether and/or chloroform, and a mask to cover the patient's nose and mouth. This was suspended from a bracket to keep it upright, preventing spills, and was attached by a long hose to a foot-operated pump on the floor. The pump was used to force air through the liquid anesthetic, and to mix additional air with the anesthetic vapor inhaled by the patient. This was the first known "bubble-through" vaporizer.

Catalog Record: Hayes Inhaler

Three Catalog Records (aiwo, aiwp, aiwn):

Access Key: aiwo
Accession No.: 1999-07-21-1

Title: [Hayes anaesthetic apparatus no. 2.]

Author: Hayes, Samuel J. 1833-1897.

Title variation: Alt Title
Title: S.J. Hayes vaporizer.

Title variation: Alt Title
Title: Hayes’ chloroform inhaler.

Publisher: [S.l. : s.n. : 1883-1894.]

Physical Description: 1 anesthesia vaporizer : brass, nickel-plated metal, other metals, glass ; 16 x 13 x 16 cm.

Subject: Vaporizers.
Subject: Masks, Anesthesia.
Subject: Chloroform.
Subject: Ether, Ethyl.

Note Type: General
Notes: Title based on 2009 article by George S. Bause, M.D.

Note Type: Citation
Notes: Bause GS. America’s first patented series of bubble-through anesthetic
vaporizers: Reverend Samuel J. Hayes’ sermons against asphyxial anesthesia.
Anesthesiology. 2009;110(1):12-21.

Note Type: Physical Description
Notes: A vaporizer for chloroform, ether, or anesthetic mix, with a body the shape
of an oval (cassinoid) cylinder and a oronasal mask extending from one side;
This description is based on a patient’s perspective, i.e. the mask is the
‘front’ of the inhaler; The mask is metal and the shape of a broad tear-drop
to cover both the nose and mouth; The mask measures approx. 9.8 cm in height
and 9.6 cm in width; The cylindrical body of the vaporizer is metal; In the
right side of the vaporizer is a rectangular opening approx. 4.5 cm in height
and 1 cm wide where a glass and mercury thermometer once sat; Just behind
this opening is a port for the tubing from the foot bellows; On the back of
the vaporizer is a hinged metal door which opens to expose a glass jar with a
curved metal tube suspended from a metal top into the jar; The tube has four
small holes in one side; Above the metal lid for the glass jar are two
control valves with winged knobs; The door is approx. 13 cm in height and 8
cm wide and curves to fit the cylindrical shape of the vaporizer; The top and
bottom of the vaporizer are flat; On the top is a regulating dial with
engraved marks in increments of .5 with whole numbers marked from 1 to 15;
On the left side of the top of the vaporizer is a capped port for filling and
emptying the internal water bath; Engraved on the top: “APPARATUS & PROCESS
PAT’D”.

Note Type: Reproduction
Notes: Photographed by Mr. William Lyle, in 2010.

Note Type: Historical
Notes: This is an example of the second chloroform vaporizer designed by dentist
Reverend Samuel J. Hayes, of Pittsburgh Pennsylvania. Hayes was using the
second model in 1883, just two years after his first model, but he did not
apply for a patent until 1892. The addition of an interior water bath
surrounding the ether chamber was a more effective design. A thermometer
(missing from this example) was also incorporated into the second model. The
thermometer allowed the anesthetist to monitor the temperature of the liquid
anesthetic. A Bunsen burner or lamp could be used to warm the anesthetic if
necessary. Air was pumped into the vaporizer via tubing attached to a foot
bellows. One “bubble-through” tube aerated the liquid anesthetic, while
another tube forced air over the anesthetic. The regulating dial on the top,
and the internal control valves, could be used to roughly control the
concentration of anesthetic vapor inhaled by the patient. (Bause, 2009.)

Access Key: aiwp
Accession No.: 2008-02-21-1

Title: [Hayes anaesthetic apparatus no. 3.]

Author: Hayes, Samuel J. 1833-1897.

Title variation: Alt Title
Title: S.J. Hayes vaporizer.

Title variation: Alt Title
Title: Hayes’ chloroform inhaler.

Publisher: [S.l. : s.n. : 1895-1897.]

Physical Description: 1 anesthesia vaporizer : brass, copper, nickel-plating, other metals, glass, mercury ; 15 x 8.5 x 16 cm.

Subject: Vaporizers.
Subject: Masks, Anesthesia.
Subject: Chloroform.
Subject: Ether, Ethyl.
Subject: Anesthetics, Combined.

Note Type: General
Notes: Title based on 2009 article by George S. Bause, M.D.

Note Type: Citation
Notes: Bause GS. America’s first patented series of bubble-through anesthetic
vaporizers: Reverend Samuel J. Hayes’ sermons against asphyxial anesthesia.
Anesthesiology. 2009;110(1):12-21.

Note Type: Physical Description
Notes: A vaporizer with a cylindrical body and an oronasal mask extending from one
side; This description is based on a patient’s perspective, i.e. the mask is
the ‘front’ of the inhaler; The mask is metal and the shape of a broad
tear-drop, to cover both the nose and mouth; The mask is about 9.6 cm in
height and measures approx. 8.2 cm in width; The cylindrical body of the
vaporizer is metal; In the right side of the vaporizer is a rectangular
opening approx. 3.5 cm in height and 1 cm wide where a glass and mercury
thermometer sits; Just behind this opening is a port for the tubing from the
foot bellows; The bottom of the vaporizer is held snuggly in a copper[?] cup
approx. 5 cm in height and 8 cm in dia.; A metal bracket is welded to the cup
for mounting the cup on the wall; The body of the vaporizer measures approx.
13.3 cm in height and 7.7 cm in dia.; The top and bottom of the vaporizer are
flat; On the top, in the center, is a regulating dial; For the dial, engraved
into the top of the vaporizer are marks in increments of .5, with whole
numbers marked from 1 to 16; Two valve adjusting knobs are also on the top
of the vaporizer; One knob is to the right of the dial and one is behind the
dial; On the left side of the top of the vaporizer is a capped port for
filling and emptying the internal water bath; Text etched into the top of the
vaporizer is partially obscured by the knobs; The visible text includes, “PR”
“SS & APPARATU”, and”‘D”; If not obscured it would likely read, “PROCESS &
APPARATUS PAT’D”.

Note Type: Reproduction
Notes: Photographed by Mr. William Lyle, in 2010.

Note Type: Acquisition
Notes: Donated to the WLM by Selma H. Calmes, M.D.

Note Type: Historical
Notes: This is an example of the third and final vaporizer designed by dentist
Reverend Samuel J. Hayes, of Pittsburgh Pennsylvania. First depicted in 1895,
it incorporated improvements suggested by Hayes’ colleagues. Control valves
were moved from the interior to the top of the inhaler, eliminating the need
for an access door. The sealed housing made the inhaler more efficient.
Additional perforations were made in the tubes by which air was added to the
anesthetic vapor, increasing the amount of air available. As in the first two
models, one “bubble-through” tube aerated the liquid anesthetic, while
another tube forced air over the anesthetic. The regulating dial and control
valves could be used to roughly control the concentration of vapor in the air
inhaled by the patient. By January of 1897 Hayes introduced a double
stop-cock to the rubber bellows tubing to allow the air pumped by the foot
bellows to be supplemented with oxygen. (Bause, 2009.)

Note Type: Historical
Notes: Rev. Dr. Samuel J. Hayes (1833-1897) worked as a minister, editor, dentist
and manufacturer. He also published the Dental and Surgical Microcosm from
1891 to 1897, which he used to editorialize against the prevalent use of 100%
nitrous oxide anesthesia. Hayes died in June, 1897. (Bause, 2009.)

Access Key: aiwn
Accession No.: 2011-02-15-3

Title: [Hayes anaesthetic apparatus no. 1.]

Author: Hayes, Samuel J. 1833-1897.

Title variation: Alt Title
Title: S.J. Hayes prototype vaporizer.

Title variation: Alt Title
Title: Hayes’ chloroform inhaler.

Title variation: Alt Title
Title: Hayes patent prototype.

Publisher: [S.l. : s.n. : ca. 1880.]

Physical Description: 1 anesthesia vaporizer : steel, tin-plating, glass

Subject: Vaporizers.
Subject: Masks, Anesthesia.
Subject: Chloroform.
Subject: Ether, Ethyl.
Subject: Anesthetics, Combined.

Note Type: General
Notes: Title based on 2009 article by George S. Bause, M.D.

Note Type: Citation
Notes: Bause GS. America’s first patented series of bubble-through anesthetic
vaporizers: Reverend Samuel J. Hayes’ sermons against asphyxial anesthesia.
Anesthesiology. 2009;110(1):12-21.

Note Type: Reproduction
Notes: Photographed by Mr. William Lyle, in 2010.

Note Type: Acquisition
Notes: Acquired by WLM Founder Paul M. Wood, M.D.

Note Type: Historical
Notes: Rev. Dr. Samuel J. Hayes (1833-1897) patented his first anesthetic inhaler in
1881. During his varied career Hayes was a schoolteacher, minister, editor,
dentist and manufacturer. He also published the Dental and Surgical
Microcosm from 1891 to 1897, which he used to advertise his products and
editorialize against the prevalent use of 100% nitrous oxide anesthesia.
Hayes died in June, 1897. (Bause, 2009.)

Note Type: Historical
Notes: The apparatus described here is the patent model. It has a chamber to hold
liquid ether, chloroform, or a mixture of alcohol, chloroform and ether. It
was attached by a long hose to a foot-operated pump on the floor. The pump
was used to force air over and bubble air through the liquid anesthetic. This
was the first known “bubble-through” anesthetic vaporizer. Hayes improved on
the design in his second and third models of the apparatus.