Sir Frederick William Hewitt (1857-1916), an accomplished English anesthesiologist, wrote one of the earliest comprehensive textbooks on anesthesia, and designed several pieces of anesthesia equipment. In 1901, he described his wide-bore ether inhaler, a modification of the Clover Ether Inhaler
. Unlike the Clover, it can be refilled with ether while still in use, and the mask is screwed into place so that it "cannot be unexpectedly detached." Most importantly, it admitted a larger volume of air, making it easier for the patient to breathe. That, in turn, speeded induction (the first stage of inhalation anesthesia). This example of the wide-bore inhaler was made by the original manufacturer, Barth & Co. of London.
Throughout his career, Dr. Hewitt called attention to the need for adequate ventilation and oxygenation of the patient. His oral airway
, introduced in 1908, led the way to making control of the airway a routine part of the anesthesiologist’s work. He was so highly respected that he was appointed the official Anesthetist to King Edward VII, and later to King George V.