Connell Closed Circuit
Dr. Waters' absorber was an attachment that could be connected by a hose to any anesthesia machine. The Connell Table Model, introduced around 1935, was the first anesthesia machine in the United States to feature a built-in closed-circuit apparatus. Connell's breathing circuit consisted of glass-enclosed inspiratory and expiratory "flutter" valves for observation of the patient's breathing, an absorber, a shunt valve that enabled rebreathing of CO2, a "spill and dump" valve that could be adjusted to keep the lungs inflated, an ether dropper, a mixing chamber that combined gases with the ether vapor, a bellows and a rebreathing bag. The example shown here lacks some components.
The Connell company was founded around 1910 by New York surgeon Karl Connell (1878-1941). The company was acquired by its highly successful competitor, The Ohio Chemical & Manufacturing Company, around 1940. Circle breathing with CO2 absorption soon became part of every modern anesthesia machine.
Catalog Record: Connell Closed Circuit Contact firstname.lastname@example.org for catalog record.